Fabrication of nanostructures and nanoscale devices 

Prof Galina Tsirlina (CENN Nanocenter)

There are no systematic textbooks considering all variety of fabrication techniques applied nowadays to fabricate various nanostructures. This course attempts to collect the most important information from recent reviews and monographs on the topic (lists of Refs are available in ppt files below), and to present systematization of fabrication procedures based on the nature of the involved processes. The course unavoidably contains some portion of chemistry, but does not require chemical pre-requisites. The main goals are to explain the principle fabrication strategies, assuming mutual influence of subsequent technological steps, and to prevent misunderstandings of the ‘recipes’ (fabrication protocols) published in the literature.


1. Optical and Electronic Lithography

1.1. Polymer and inorganic resists (composition, solubility, microstructure)

1.2. Spin-coating, adhesion, roughness

1.3. Light and beam interactions with positive and negative resists; amplification

1.4. Post-exposure procedures (developers, thermal effects, wetting)

1.5. Maskless lithography

2. Fabrication of Thin Films

2.1. Supports (etching, polishing, termination)

2.2. Physical vapor deposition (thermal, laser, magnetron; growth control and monitoring)

2.3. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) (precursors, reactors, plasma assisted modes)

2.4. Exfoliation of vdW thin films

2.5. Epitaxial films (MBE, ALD)

2.6. Wet deposition (electroless, electrochemical)

3. Local Fabrication Techniques

3.1. Focused ion beam (imaging, milling, implantation, deposition)

3.2. Probe microscopes as fabrication tools (printing, grafting, deposition)

3.3. Mechanical manipulation

3.4. Light-assisted technologies

4. Fabrication of 1D objects

4.1. Carbon nanotubes (free-standing, SW, MW)

4.2. Ordered templates for fabrication of nanowires (track membranes, AAO)

4.3. Templated fabrication of nanowires (filling under pressure, electrodeposition)

4.4. Isolation of single nanowires and nanotubes

5. Fabrication of 0D objects

5.1. Colloidal metals

5.2. Semiconductor quantum dots

5.3. Characterization (UV-vis spectra, dynamic light scattering)

6. Assembling of low-dimensional objects

6.1. Dry transfer methods

6.2. Wet transfer methods

6.3. Fabrication of junctions and contacts

6.4. Fabrication of nm-size gaps

7. Nanometrology

7.1. Characterization of single objects (TEM, SEM, probe techniques; image distortions)

7.2. Compositional analysis (EDX, vibration spectroscopy, X-ray scattering)

Laboratory training: individual assignments can be agreed.